At our time, the activity of civil engineers has particular social and strategic importance. The responsibilities of civil engineers vary depending on their specialization. For example, there is an engineer who makes a full set of drawings for the future building structure on the basis of the objects of the architectural project. Another engineer may develop the schemes of utilities and specific engineering systems which are to be located in the building, and also performs the accompanying drawings, and negotiates those with other workforce engaged in the project.
A civil engineer is a specialist in the field of construction who provides a full range of works on designing and constructing buildings and structures.
The primary duties, data and information a civil engineer works with include (Exforsys, 2006):
- pre-project examination, analysis of baseline data and technical specifications for the design;
- dividing the data of the project into sections;
- designing systems for objects of different functional purpose: apartment complexes, mixed-use buildings, etc.;
- designing and manufacturing various special facilities (houses, kindergartens, schools, etc.);
- analysis, the formation of opinions, drafting of technical specifications, technical reports and proposals for optimization of design solutions;
- implementation of the reconstruction of existing buildings;
- execution of drawings and specifications;
- verification and control of documentation for compliance with quality design solutions and current design standards;
- preparation of project documentation set to undergo examination and regulation;
- coordination of project documentation with the customer and supervisors;
- organization and coordination of the design process of engineering systems on power supply and lighting;
- equipment selection;
- patent investigations in order to ensure the purity of the patent of new design solutions;
- implementation of construction supervision;
- drafting patent applications.
The data any engineer collects must be broad enough to exclude any possible mistakes in further processing. Output information should thoroughly and with no mistakes be applied to the object the project is aimed at. Therefore, the data consists of different figures starting from length, width and finishing with the masses or angles. The output information reveals the united whole picture where every figure is dependent and tied to all the others.
To work successfully an engineer must know (Canas-Guerrero et al., 2013):
- basic architecture, its types;
- systems and design methods;
- principles of operation, installation conditions and technical operation of designed structures, the technology of their production;
- equipment or applying parts and accessories, technical data and economic indicators of the best domestic and foreign product samples, similar projects;
- standards, procedures and guidelines for the development and execution of drawings and other design documents;
- design features developed and used by technical means, materials and their properties;
- technical requirements of structures developed, the order of their certification;
- design automation tools;
- procedures and methods for conducting patent research;
- basics of invention;
- technical foundations of aesthetics and artistic design;
- basics of computer-aided design;
- advanced domestic and foreign experience in design of similar products;
- fundamentals of the economy;
- general knowledge of the functional systems of all possible utilities.
A civil engineer must be able to perform the following tasks:
- use modern computer technologies and types of communications;
- do the drawings;
- use different design program (AutoCAD, Solid Works, Inventor, Photoshop, etc.) (Yasmin, 2013);
- conduct technical calculations in the design;
- use the latest mathematical research methods;
- work with technical documentation, read construction and manufacturing drawings, understand the electrical and pneumatic circuits, organize technical material.
An engineer performs much work autonomously in accordance with the task. However, his/her work involves communication with colleagues, customers, and others. The workplace of a civil engineer must be highly lighted. Binding instruments used in the work are: a personal computer, special computer programs, graphics tablets (which are to be taken outside in case needed), drawing instruments, charts and drawings of structures and facilities and so forth. The profession also involves visits to pre-project survey and implementation of construction supervision.