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Disorders are abnormal conditions that affect the normal functioning of body organs. They are caused by exposure to harmful substances, deficiency in essential components of a balanced diet, infections from disease vectors and many others. Urgent care is needed for any detection of disorders in patients, because the lack of treatment leads to the development of diseases. This paper highlights some of the disorders depicted by the symptoms of the three different patients in the attached article. In addition, the article details epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and diagnosis of the disorders in patients.
Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who receives care from her mother. She has had running temperature for 3 days, hot and dry skin and sore tonsils. She has normal pulse and respiratory beat per minute. The significant disorder revolves around her tonsillitis disorder. She complains that swallowing is painful due to the effects of a sore throat. Jennifer’s tonsillitis disorder is caused by a bacterium called streptococcus. It may also be caused by a viral infection on the tonsils in the throat. She portrays most of the symptoms for tonsillitis, which only a trained physician can treat. The doctor has to verify the cause before prescribing any treatment. The test is taken by swabbing the back of the throat near the tonsil and taking a lab test to determine the cause. Assumptions made when bacteria test are negative are that the tonsillitis cause is a viral infection. Antibiotics treat tonsillitis from bacterial infection, but in case of a viral infection, the body has to fight on its own. Some adaptive measures may help to recover including taking warm water, adequate rest and eating smooth or soft foods to ease the pain.
Jack suffers from erythema, which is a disorder that causes redness of the skin. Jack’s disease is caused by hyperemia of the skin’s capillaries emanating from the increased blood flow in the skin tissues. It is also caused by radiation from the chemicals handled. Infections, electrical treatment, medication, allergies, exercise, sunburns and many activities that cause dilation of the capillaries cause erythema. Jack’s symptoms indicate that continuous contact with abrasive chemicals influences allergic response from the skin tissues. The doctors to handle erythematic conditions are dermatologists. Even though different studies were conducted to establish the best treatment of erythema, there has been little success since most of the lotions and creams used give unsatisfactory results. There has not been established an effective treatment of erythema with Aloe Vera application being the most prescribed therapy. Several other cream lotions such as Biafin cream and Calendula Officinalis are used for the treatment of erythema through radiotherapy.
Martha is a 65-year-old woman who suffers from insomnia based on the preliminary symptoms of sleeplessness. She is also under severe stress from her mother’s dependence condition, which makes her unhappy with her retirement. The condition of Martha’s mother is of significant influence to her insomnia disorder for she only thinks of her throughout the day. Caring for her mother leaves Martha with little time to check on her health. Insomnia is a disorder that mostly affects the elderly although it may affect people of all ages. It is not a stand-alone disease but a symptom which is defined by the duration one lacks quality sleep. Transient insomnia is not having sleep for a week; short -term insomnia is the lack of adequate sleep for 2-3 weeks, while sleeplessness for a month is termed as chronic insomnia. Various studies have shown that insomnia affects women more often than men. They also showed that 30%-50% of elderly Americans experience difficulty in initiating and maintaining adequate sleep. Having diagnosed insomnia in a patient, the health practitioner would evaluate the patient’s medical record and other factors that may contribute to insomnia. For example, snoring, psychological factors such as stress levels and drug use. Martha’s physician would check on her medical record, especially concerning her hypertension condition and the influence of her hydrochlorothiazide medication. The best prescribed treatment for insomnia is behavioral and relaxation therapies to manage stress levels. In addition, the use of sedative pills is common in medication treatment of insomnia.