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Law Enforcement in the United States

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Question One

While selecting police employees, there are three major stages of recruitment and selection. They include physical ability test, background investigation and polygraph examination and medical evaluation. In some departments, such stages are more complex to apply because it is hard to ensure that all the candidates fulfill all the needed requirements. The complexity is manifested not only in meeting qualifications but also in having the right number of police officers who meet the existing demand. It is clear that some senior police officials may have relatives who may wish to join the police force without meeting the required minimum qualifications. In other instances, it is hard to get a recruit who has the excellent combination of the required qualifications. One candidate who might be having excellent qualifications in one field may be weak in another area.

Question Two

Protected class is a term used to describe a segment of people with comparable characteristics that are legitimately protected from any form segregation during employment service on the foundation of their individualities. It is essential to ensure all the employees are accorded equal chances in regard of selection and promotion.

Question Three

The legal concept of remedy helps in enforcing a right, making another court order to be implemented and imposing a penalty. In the environmental law, remedies include damages, chancery court and declaratory remedy (Bumgarner, 2006). Among all the remedies mentioned, the one applicable in cases alleging job discrimination is chancery court. The main focus of this remedy is equity in all aspects of job performance. In this regard, all the employees have the right to work without any discrimination.

Question Four

Learning, learning domain and teaching are connected. In most cases, people teach to get results in terms of examination performance from students. Students learn what is taught, and te results of teaching are known as learning domains. Therefore, there is no teaching without learning. The teacher's job becomes viable if there is a learner and learners get different outcomes out of the teaching process. Some learners get cognitive, technical as well as creativity skills out of learning.

Question Five

Training enables police to maintain higher standards of education, mental, moral and physical abilities. It also establishes preparatory and promotional ground for police in services. Training enables police to gain new knowledge in changing police forces and educates the police officers on importance of public-police forces. Through police training, the officers are equipped with fundamental skills that are vital in fighting crimes. Officers also learn about all the basic concepts of law. They are trained on how to safeguard their safety and the safety of the civilians. In addition, the training sessions greatly emphasize on accuracy. In the police force, there is no room for mistakes. One minor mistake can either cost the life of a police officer or a civilian. They, moreover, learn all the aspects of accountability as well as other basic programs that enhance their survival in the real world.

Question Six

Law enforcement requires various types of training. The first training is called basic training, which includes defensive tactics, investigative techniques and first aid among others. The second training is where one is trained on how to deal with unexpected situations (Bumgarner, 2006). The third training is a continuing education that includes continuous updates and polishing of skills. Moreover, police officers are tought self-defense tactics as well as general police tactics. They are also equipped with handling skills as well as mechanisms of diffusing violent situations. Finally, they are trained on how to gather evidence that is essential for the prosecution process.

Question Seven

Each state had to formulate an organization that would set the minimum standards that wouuld guide training and hiring of law enforcers. The organization also had to set retention and ethical conduct of state officers through licensing and certification (Bumgarner, 2006). The education standards were to be raised so as to have a better police force. Of all the areas examined by the commission, only the education attainment had to be reviewed. In all the major police departments, only one percent of them required a four-year degree training while 8 percent of the remaining departments required two-year degree training. Therefore, a four-year degree as well as two-year degree was recommended to have at least a minimum qualification for these departments.

Question Eight

There are three major emerging aspects that influence police education and training. They include sophistication of modern crime, technological evolution and growth of terrorism. This is due to the need to gain analytical skills essential in accomplishing police operations.

Question Nine

Police subculture is a set of distinctive beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors shared amongst most of the police officers working for different police departments. The set standards of behavior are considered appropriate for law enforcement personnel and hence govern police actions in execution of their mandate.

Question Ten

Police subculture can be either negative or positive. On the one side, it creates a sense of brotherhood as well as the spirit of group loyalty. On the other hand, the officers may feel that only the fellow police officers can understand them. The police can, thus, abandon family members and give more loyalty to the work colleague.

Question Eleven

The current police training equips the police force with diverse skills such as norms, values, customs, roles, traditions, symbols, language and ideologies of a culture. Therefore, a police is in a good position to relate well with all the members of the society (Zeisel, 1983).

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