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Table of Contents
Children are constantly surrounded by care and love of their parents. Parental self-sacrificing love knows no boundaries, but often it can be unreasonable. In order to provide maximum benefits and pleasure, some parents surround a child with excessive luxury, pamper a child and, thus, create many difficulties, both for them and a child – in school, and later during independent living. Raising a child in the family is the most important element in the preparation of a child for school and life in the society. It is important to think seriously about developing the personality of each child and parents’ actions where they are necessary and timely. It is proved that outdoor games and exercises have a significant impact on normal growth and development of a child, of all organs and tissues. Timely development of basic motor skills is almost as important as the timely intellectual development of a child. In this paper, the stages of development of a child in terms of physiology and neurophysiology will be considered, as well as methods of child rearing in the so-called “difficult” periods.
A set of morphological and functional characteristics of the organism in their relationship means the physical development of a person. Intensively occurring processes of growth and maturation of the child’s body determine his particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Aspects of climate, living conditions, daily routine, diet, and past illnesses are visibly reflected on the physical development of children. The rate of physical development is also influenced by genetic factors, the type of constitution, the intensity of metabolism, endocrine background of an organism, the enzyme activity of blood and secretions of the digestive glands. In this regard, the level of physical development of children is considered to be a reliable indicator of the child’s health. In assessing the physical development of children, the following parameters are taken into account:
1. Morphological characteristics: body height and weight, chest circumference, and head circumference up to three years.
2. Functional parameters: vital capacity, muscle strength of the hands and others.
3. The development of muscles and muscle tone, posture condition, musculoskeletal system, the development of subcutaneous fat, and tissue turgor.
The basis of all-round development of a child is physical education. Organized physical training sessions, as well as free motor activity when the child plays while walking, jumping, running, improve the activity of the cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems, strengthen the musculoskeletal system, and improve metabolism (Charlesworth, 2013). They increase the resistance of a child to diseases, mobilizes the body’s defenses. Through motor activity, a child learns, develops his/her mental processes. The greater the number and variety of movements the child possesses, the greater the opportunity for the development of sensation, perception, and other mental processes is. Therefore, if the competent physical education will be missed, in the future, it will be extremely difficult to make up gaps and eliminate mistakes.
Mental development is a series of qualitative transitions from one stage of development to another, where each preceding step is the basis of the following steps or stages of development. In psychology and physiology, there are identified different stages, which are characterized by a certain specific behavior, the child’s activity, the functioning of the body and its adaptation challenges facing them.
The dominant activity of the child in infancy (0-1 years) is a direct emotional contact with an adult. In an early childhood (1-3 years,) the objective, manipulative activities become leading (Hauert, 1990). The child learns to focus on the constant value of items, as they are enshrined in human activity. Early age is sensitive to language acquisition, at this time, the assimilation of speech is the most effective. Showing of substantive action by adults along with the voice guidance helps a child to develop social skills. In three years, there is a change of leading activity and the transition to the next age period – the pre-school age. Objective activity is replaced by leading gaming and productive activities. During the game, the reproduction of adults, social relations turns into productive actions – mastering, drawing, modeling, and designing. New challenges that a child is facing lead to improvement of the analyzer systems. Thus, in the preschool years, a significant reduction in the thresholds of the visual, auditory, and motor skin sensitivity is noted. Development of perception is stimulated by the absorption of children of sensory standards that are used as a yardstick to allow the evaluation of characteristics of surveyed objects. In the next stage of development, educational activity of children becomes a leading one(primary school age). Main tumor of this age is the emergence of abstract verbal reasoning and logical thinking, which rebuilds other cognitive processes, as well as the ability to adjust the behavior and control it arbitrarily. In the adolescence and youth period, communication and joint activities of children with their peers become primary (Hauert, 1990).
At each of these stages of development, a child is the subject of social impact. An object, with which the child interacts, is social in its functions and origins, and the person with whom he/she communicates, is a carrier of certain ways of using objects and meanings of certain human activities. From the point of view of a single functional system, the age period is a period of its steady existence as a sustainable mix of ripe and ripening components and connections between them. Mature components perform a leading role in the hierarchy of their interactions. Neurophysiological content of the period in respect of the structure of the functional system is further maturation of the included in it components and the connections between them.