Cholera

Cholera

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The 21st century remains one of the periods that have seen the reemergence of various diseases with high prevalence and incidence. The lifestyle diseases have become common for many, owing to the manner of life. Cholera is one of the infectious diseases that is caused by a bacterium known as Vibrio cholerae. In the modern society, it is a disease that is highly attributed to the level of sanitation people have an access to. Even though, cholera is a treatable condition, it can be life threatening in case there is a time lapse before an individual seeks medical attention. Cholera is an acute diarrheal condition. Researchers estimate that there is from 1.4 to 4.3 million cases of cholera globally (Piarroux et al., 2011). The number of deaths from cholera is approximated to be between 28000 to 142000 annually (WHO, 2012). Cholera, in essence, has classified signs and symptoms; it is the state that can be described as a life threatening disease, so that it requires one to address it in a timely manner.

Background

Cholera is an infectious disease, which was first discovered back in 1965 by a man named Pillipo Panici. The first outbreak began in Bengal. However, in 1920 this state has spread towards India too (WHO, 2014). Back in those days, people used traditional means, such as camphor syrups, to curb the disease. There was also the aspect of quarantine for those who were thought to be infected. However, the pandemic did also spread to areas, such as North America, South America, Naples and Egypt, among others. There were over thousands of victims who died from the first cholera outbreak. Sanitation remains the fundamental cause of the first cholera outbreak. The main problem was that people would ingest food that contains strains of bacteria. It is vital to note that cholera was especially common in overcrowded zones. These were mainly the places where individuals would share social facilities. As a result, the transmission of he vibrio cholera is easy.

Critical Literature Review

There has been a cholera outbreak in Nigeria. According to the research that was done in 2010 by Dalhat et al. (2011), there was a need to carry out a descriptive analysis on the 2010 occurrence of cholera. The research sought to establish the epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak. The study focused on 10 out of 18 states that did provide their health reports to the Federal Ministry of Health. They did describe the outbreak according to time and place of occurrence. The involved person was also well discussed. The scientists calculated various statistical measures. According to the results, the outbreak of cholera was big and easily spread to the northern part of the nation. The authors highlighted the need for a well-coordinated surveillance to curb the existing issue. The results brought to light how most states were not well prepared to handle a cholera outbreak. It is important to note that the preparedness of a team to handle an outbreak determines how far it will go.

In a similar event, Lantagne, Balakrish Nair, Lanata, & Cravioto (2014) reported the cholera outbreak in Haiti. They did carry out a study to determine where and how it started. Moreover, the UN had insisted that they needed to know specific details of the outbreak. They carried the research and established that cholera began after the introduction of vibrio cholera by a human activity. Specifically, there was contamination of an important tributary. It did contain strains of the Asian type of Vibrio cholera. The study did suggest some recommendations to deal with the cholera outbreak. For instance, proper surveillance measures were suggested. The authors also suggested public education to empower the citizens. For example, public campaigns on proper sanitation and hygiene were started. The sole mandate was to ensure that the bacteria are not transmitted from one individual to another through conttaminated foods and drinks. Lantagne et al. (2014), therefore, show the applicable methods of curing cholera outbreak in the society.

Description of Scenario

The current scenario is absolutely not new to the medical field. In essence, there has been an issuance of a video by ISIS. It has sent the video to the government providing clear information that all the important water system in the United States have been contaminated with the vibrio cholerae. In other words, everyone obtaining their water through the points has a high probability of contracting the disease. The need to close all the water points is thus evident. One suggests that everyone should use water bottles only. It is after noticing the trend where a lot of people started getting sick. The scenario illustrates what happens in a typical nation. The contamination of all water points is an urgent issue that requires being urgently addressed. It is because people depend on water to carry out different activities. In fact, the water is the pillar of livelihood. Ascertaining the contamination of water is the primary mandate of the surveillance committee. Nevertheless, the whole scenario requires coordination to ensure that everything remains under control.

Hypothesis

Having the scenario in mind, it is important to hypothesize various points. The first hypothesis is that the presence of vibrio cholerae predisposes the whole community to cholera. It, therefore, means that cholera outbreak is expected in the following few days. The second hypothesis is that water is the main source of transmission of the cholera (WHO, 2012). In other words, everyone who develops the disease is likely to acquire it through drinking water from the main tributaries. It, therefore, means that curbing the intake of water is likely to end the spread of cholera in the community. The hypotheses are vital in the decision-making process of the surveillance team.

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