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Climate Change

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The sun’s output is not responsible for the increase of the earth’s temperatures in recent times. According to researchers of the earth’s climate their findings do indicate that there is no increase in the level of the sun’s output that should be associated with the increase in the earth’s temperature. Climate researchers Claus Froelich, Ben Santer and Mike Lockwood have stated  clearly in their findings that the sun’s output over the last few years has reduced. This may seem not to be true to many people as the earth’s temperature is increasing day by day yet the sun’s solar energy output is being reported to decrease. The decrease in the sun’s output can be proved by the fact that the stratosphere has in the past decade become cooler. Weather balloons and satellite measuring instruments were majorly used in the derivation of this finding. Thus, other factors may be associated with the increase in the atmosphere temperature level.

Various factors are involved with the change of the earth’s climate and majorly include greenhouse gases, oceans, melting land ice, melting sea ice, clouds and melting permafrost. These factors are the ones that should be associated with the change being experienced now of the earth’s climate. Greenhouse gases which include carbon dioxide, methane, among others, have contributed greatly to changes in the earth’s climate. These greenhouse gases do allow energy from the sun to penetrate into the earth’s atmosphere and later absorb the resultant heat emitted from the earth thus resulting into an increase in the earth temperature. The greenhouse gases do thus act as a greenhouse roof preventing heat to escape which is a matter that has resulted to global warming. Increase of the earth’s temperature do warm the oceans which in effect reduces the oceans ability to absorb carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas. Warming of the ocean waters do also lead to the release of already absorbed carbon dioxide in water masses back to the atmosphere thus increasing the amount of greenhouse gases.

High levels of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have been associatd with the shrinking size of cumulus clouds which do prevent the sun’s energy from reaching the earth’s atmosphere. Thus, the earth’s climate has changed due to this and a warmer atmosphere is being experienced currently. The melting of ice and permafrost are also factors that have contributed to the increase in the temperatures of the earth atmosphere. When melting of the ice and permafrost occurs, less of the sun’s radiation is reflected back which makes the bear ground to absorb heat and emit it to the atmosphere thus warming the earth’s atmosphere.

Electronic wastes which are mostly from the developed countries are associated with various problems. Most of the electronic wastes from these developed countries are either disposed into landfills or recycled in some way. The developed countries also do dispose these wastes by shipping them to the less developed countries where there is cheap labour and no strict environmental regulations on waste disposal. These electronic wastes when disposed in such a way pollute the environment as they are composed of toxic pollutants such as polyvinylchloride. Workers in these less developed countries where electronic waste is disposed may have their health being at risks when involved with recycling these wastes. Most of these workers are children and when involved in burning and treating these waste with acids to obtain reusable metals, their health remains at stake as there are harmful chemicals and toxic metal products that are released. The electronic waste which has no use is usually disposed into water masses and in other cases burned which in effect do pose health risks to various other people.

Laws have been put in place regulating the shipment of these electronic wastes into less developed countries. Electronic wastes are to be recycled according to the laws and manufacturers have a role of ensuring that no electronic waste is discarded in any way but recycled. Due to the high costs involved in recycling these wastes, they are often illegally smuggled or classified as not hazardous material and shipped across international borders into the less developed countries.

The gross domestic prodduct of a country is not a reliable measurement in monitoring the environmental quality of human beings. This is because there are certain variables not taken into consideration. Gross domestic product usually excludes the beneficial transactions that fulfil our basic needs though no money is deemed to change hands and includes social costs in transactions involved with exposure to a harmful environment. The genuine progress indicator addresses this matter and takes into account of these two variables so as to efficiently monitor the environmental quality and well-being of human beings.

The government do spend huge amounts of the tax payers money in efforts of subsidizing the cost involved in the recycle of electronic waste. This government effort does not bear much fruit in ensuring that these electronic wastes are recycled. Manufacturers consider it a huge task to recycle these electronic waste products and thus seek cheaper means of disposing them away. The efforts of the government to aid manufacturers in recycling electronic waste products do not materialise and thus tax payers money as a result is not utilized efficiently. Subsidies aimed at ensuring electronic wastes are recycled have discouraged investments in agriculture in the fact that they affect maximum use of land and agricultural production patterns. Subsidies in a sector such as the fishery sector have led to market distortions and the encouraging of over capacity thus leading to the depletion of the fish stocks. Subsidies in the fossil fuel industry have been one of the factors associated with the increase in carbon emissions being which results to global warming. Though subsidies of fossil fuel as a source of energy is mainly done with an objective of ensuring that the poor are able to access this source of energy, it do contribute to environmental pollution.

A review of the subsidy programme objectives is necessary to address these problems associated with subsidies in the various sectors of a country’s economy. Subsidies should be put in place basing them on the benefits associated with them such as sustainable food production, efficient energy production, and creation of recycling jobs for the citizens, among others.

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