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A continuous spectrum refers to an array of all wavelengths of light which are produced by an object or a light emitting body. The continuous spectra are released by hot solids, liquids, and high density gases comprised of a continuous range of wavelengths which has no gaps in between. Emission spectra occurs in the existence of high temperature atoms whereby an atom moves from a higher energy level to a lower energy level and therefore its remaining energy is given out in the form of light. The characteristics of emission spectrum include the occurrence of a bright frequency line and a wavelength in a dark background. In addition, an emission spectrum can also occur where protons are being produced by an excited gas. Likewise, an absorption spectrum occurs when an atom moves from a lower energy state to a higher state. During this movement, the atom absorbs some light and as a result, a dark line of frequency and wavelength is formed, falling in a bright background. Consequently, an absorption spectrum can emerge when radiation strikes through a cool gas. When this happens, the atoms in the gas absorb protons of a given magnitude of wavelength.
The study of the spectrum can be used in gathering information about stars, galaxies, atoms, molecular energy levels, chemical bonds, and interaction between molecules since these cannot be built in a laboratory. Likewise, this information about spectra can be used in determining the age, temperature, and the brightness of stars.
Scientists have discovered that the atmosphere is really affecting astronomical observations majorly because of the increased devastating rate of air pollution which emanates from the industries and airplanes which fly in the atmosphere. The pollution increases the volume of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is a dense gas hence, making it difficult to make correct astronomical observations. Some of the efforts to improve the ground based astronomy include the efforts by the developed countries to replace the use of coal and other petroleum products in running industrial machines with natural gas and electricity. Similarly, most of the nations have appreciated the role of astrology and are therefore investing in this department by getting better astronomical devices and embracing scientific projects which have the potential to improve this science in the future.
Radio astrology refers to the observation, collection, and analysis of the waves that emanate from heavenly bodies which, exist in the space by using radio window whereas optical astrology is the observation of the heavenly bodies by employing highly skilled techniques using the optical window which involves the use of telescopes for reflecting and refracting images in the space. These telescopes are used because of the existence of many dust particles in the atmosphere.
The advantages of radio astronomy include; the devices used in radio astrology are less expensive compared to those used in optical astrology which may be difficult to acquire because of their high cost. Secondly, radio telescopes are more reliable than the optical ones since they can be used in the detection and study of very weak electromagnetic waves. Consequently, radio astronomers can study and perform observations on much longer distances. Another advantage of the radio astronomy is that some heavenly bodies and objects producing radio waves in the space release very little or no visible light which may be invisible to optical astronomers and their optical telescopes. The disadvantages are; the power of radio telescopes is insufficient to carry out intensive and comprehensive study on the space as opposed to the optical telescopes which are more powerful. The frequency of radio waves in radio astrology emerging from heavenly bodies in the space and other established radio stations has created a close relationship and therefore the waves disrupt each other making it difficult to obtain clear results. Likewise, radio astrology is limited in that radio waves cannot penetrate earth’s atmosphere and therefore making it impossible to study them without satellites. Unlike the optical astrology, very large dishes are required in order to focus the radio waves.
The major difference that exists between these two types of planets is brought about by their size, since the Jovian planets are so big as opposed to the terrestrial counterparts who have a smaller size. Terrestrial planets are denser than the Jovian planets in their nature. It is because the terrestrials are primarily characterized by solid and rocky objects but on the other hand, Jovian planets are basically made up of liquid. According to Theo Koupelis, these Jovian planets were at one time commonly referred to as ‘gas planets’ but of late scientists have concluded that they actually possess a larger volume of liquid than gas. Furthermore, the atmosphere of Jovian planets comprises of hydrogen and helium whereas that of the terrestrials is dominated by nitrogen and carbon dioxide.