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Before the advent of the XXI century, it might seem that exclusively technology will evolve in the world of the future. However, the transformation into the world of present is far from ideal. Sociologists, philosophers, and biologists have been faced with carefully studied notions of “transgender,” “intersexuality,” and “transhumanism” over the past decades. Nevertheless, one can find all the above concepts of gender roles while reading ancient Indian epics or Brazilian tales. They include the flaw of sex and its social representation which always existed though did not receive a scientific language, and therefore was ignored by the majority. Such arrogance and social belief was formed due to the evaluation of patriarchy. Nowadays, the modern society recognizes two ideologies, namely egalitarian, which has implementation in legislative acts, and patriarchal which dominates in justice and everyday life. The equality of two sexes as a principle has revelation through the content of rights, freedoms, duties, and responsibilities of both men and women. In line with current trends in the realization of human rights, the problem of discrimination against gender roles cannot stay unnoticed. The modern version of patriarchy is based on the assertion that women have all the rights for a long time. However, in spite of globalization, the patriarchy continues to justify the power of the male over the female where the latter have a secondary role. In turn, it generates social rejection, systemic struggle, and prostitution as a growing social concern.
Among world religions, Islam is characterized by the most rigid patriarchy. It is obvious that under the influence of the processes of globalization, the character of modern Islam also changes. There is an intrinsic dynamics of values, and it is able to assimilate other values. It is manifested primarily in the fact that the trend towards liberalization and modernization is intensifying year by year in Islamic religion (Al-Rasheed, 2013). There are persistent calls for rethinking of Islamic doctrine and a new interpretation of the Koran, especially by Muslim activists who seek to consolidate the rights of women within the framework of Islam. They are united in a notable and controversial movement in the modern Muslim world called “Islamic feminism” (Al-Rasheed, 2013). Lively discussions about the status of women in an Islamic society as well as debates concerning their rights, freedoms, and responsibilities have long been one of the main indicators of how Islam perceives representatives of other cultures and faiths.
Some people believe that Islamic and Western value systems are absolutely incompatible. In particular, it concerns the provision on the equality of men and women, which is supposedly completely alien to Islam, the essence of which is to subordinate a woman or to restrict her freedom (Shah, 2005). Such well-established stereotyped opinions are mentioned in a number of studies (Naber, 2006). Islamic understanding of equality has religious origin. In Islamic culture, the legal sphere is not completely separated from the religious one as opposed to Western countries (Naber, 2006). In Muslim states, the legal regulation system is dependent on religious prescriptions. The principle of functional differentiation of sexes realized in the Islamic society is laid in the formation of a special model of the status-role organization of a Muslim woman’s life (Shah, 2005). The list of basic religious and social rights of female includes concern for the preservation of their honor and dignity. At the same time, one of the main forms of their self-realization is to be a mother and educate children.
However, in modern Islamic society, not all Muslim women share the positions of European liberal activists seeking to wrest them from the shackles of the traditional way of life, to free themselves from wearing hijab, etc. The notion that all Muslim women in the world suffer from legal discrimination is greatly exaggerated (Naber, 2006). Frequently, it arises due to particularities of dogma and social structure as well as because of the habit to judge the representatives of other cultures extrapolating personal ideas about what a modern woman should be like.
The image of the modern woman in globalized society is still determined by the factors established by the patriarchy. With the appearance of patriarchy, the concept of prostitution was evaluated, which shows the weakness of the globalized world (Amar, 2009). The causes of prostitution as well as many other social deviations are socio-economic and moral-ethical factors. Prostitution is not a job or a free choice. Women become identifiable as the intersection of vulnerabilities and dishonors naturalized by skin color or social status and not as carriers of rights and privileges (Amar, 2009). The patriarchal myth of concealment in relation to prostitution is called upon to normalize this phenomenon and present it as an inalienable and ineradicable part of society. The first tool of this myth is appeals to the false paradigm of free choice that is allegedly available to women involved in prostitution, with complete disregard for the violent practices on which the phenomenon is based. Another tool is the postulating of the allegedly natural right of men to sexual satisfaction by buying and use of female bodies. The problem of prostitution today is particularly relevant in the regions where it has legal prohibition. One of the general reasons for the prostitution existence and women trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is the male demand for it (Amar, 2009). Moreover, even in those states where prostitution is legal, many women are forced to engage in it.
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Brazil is one of the countries with officially permitted prostitution. This issue gives rise to many political and social problems where society is guided by the norms of traditions and patriarchy. The situation with prostitution in Brazil has recently become more complicated. Such kind of services in the country is legal and accessible, which attracts many tourists who search for sexual adventures. Consequently, HIV infection is extremely common in the country (Mitchell, 2016). Demand is created by a patriarchal attitude that the male's sexual needs must be satisfied in all circumstances and by violence against a living woman or a child. The marginalization of prostitution pushes the AIDS epidemic, and the police officers guided by the rules of the patriarchy accuse women of a crime and punish them paying no attention to men who are also responsible for it. Thus, the confusion of the policy of evangelical morality with the protection of women's rights has become entangled in Brazil (Amar, 2009). Therefore, the logic of patriarchy, based on the one-sided political history of gender relations rooted deep in culture, treats women unfairly.
In conclusion, the formation of patriarchal sense of justice is a significant obstacle to the realization of women's rights. Unfortunately, the tendency to strengthen the patriarchal views on the role of women in society is actualized nowadays. Consequently, this position not only restricts women's constitutional rights and freedoms but also generates social as well as economic problems. Patriarchy evaluates the appearance of prostitution in Brazil because of the demand men created. Therefore, patriarchy is responsible for the issues concerning oppression of Muslim women’s rights. In order to establish gender equality, it is necessary to overcome the outdated ideas about a woman within the established patriarchy, thereby eradicating the problems of using female in sexual and mental ways.