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Response on Violence
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The notion of violence has a negative emotional and moral connotation. In the majority of philosophical and religious moral teachings, violence is identified with evil. Resolute ban on assassination marks the boundary that separates morality from immorality. However, social consciousness and ethics allow situations of morally justified violence. In a broad sense, the violence is a suppression of a human in all shapes and forms, whether they are physical, economic, psychological, political or other. The change of youth behavior in post-war America, the protests for political rights in Mississippi and Ohio, occurrence of affirmative action, a reaction to the Iran-Contra scandal and the reaction to the events of the 11th September are the examples of suppression or resistance to any restrictions of conditions for the development of personality, the cause of which lies in other people as well as in public institutions. These events are continuous periods of external and internal contiguity of personalities with the state and international community.
In a narrow sense, violence is often reduced to the physical and economic damage that people can do to each other, and it is understood as a bodily injury, robbery, murder, arson, etc. According to this approach, violence retains its specificity; it does not dissolve entirely in the generic term of moral evil. Its imperfections are that violence is equated with seemingly limiting effect on a person who is not linked to the intrinsic motivation of his/her behavior.
The social moods of teenagers obtained peculiar resistance to society and its orders that took on a cultural and social phenomenon in the 1960s. Many young people lived by the principle articulated by President John F. Kennedy about the personal contribution of each individual to the country’s welfare rather than the country's contribution to an individual's life. 1960s were also a period of growing political awareness, fermentation and rebel sentiment. On campus, many young people protested against the country's involvement in the Vietnam War. They hld demonstrations and opposed racial segregation and poverty.
This period was inextricably linked with the phenomenon of McCarthyism. The emergence of new progressive movements of the youth left aside communistic sentiments and gave rise to the American national idea. Suppression of communist ideas was painful in the history of all countries. The United States passed this period due to the desire of young people to reinforce patriotic sentiments in society and remove all constraints of social dogma. This trend was accompanied by a worsening of the anti-communist sentiment and political repression of the anti-American citizens. By the early 1970s, the situation in the country changed and attention shifted to other young people.
Along with the shift of American society to democratic mode, ideas of freedom for all types of people became dominating. There was no other gap to penetrate the ideas of equality of people regardless of skin color than this period, which continued with the struggle of the black population of America for their civilized and political rights in the society, which they had been serving to for many decades. The role of youth was invaluable here. Segregation has become a painful period in the life of the United States in the mid-twentieth century. Vibrations of the theme of racism have established the modern framework for moral behavior with respect to people with a different skin color. The murder of the young fighters for civil rights Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner in collusion of the police with “Ku Klux Klan” in Mississippi in 1964 was one of the turning points of the civil rights movement.
Over the years, a strong distrust of outsiders and any person who threatened the southern style of life (the segregation and the denial of many fundamental rights of blacks) were prevailed sentiments of that time. Young volunteers who initiated those demonstrations were frequently beaten and arrested. This was the form of response to many years of slavery and the efforts to restore the balance of humanity in the society. Anti-segregatioon movement was a response to the violence of white over black population of America since colonial times. In turn, white responded by conservatism and acts of intimidation to preserve regional racial customs in the state. In the decades after 1964, many Mississippians became ashamed of the position of their state in the era of the civil rights struggle.
Continuation of this struggle was dedicated to the justification and recognition of the segregation by both the authorities and society. This is confirmed by the fact of adoption of affirmative action. This policy was directed at eliminating the effects of racial discrimination or gender-based discrimination in employment or education. The basic idea is that those groups of people who have been previously discriminated (the African Americans) must now be vested by different rights and benefits and thus have advantages. In his presidential decree of March 6, 1961, Kennedy put the beginning of the implementation of affirmative action in employment practices given that an employer should not take into account the origin, race, color and religion of their potential employee when receiving the last job. One of the most significant in the history of country's legislative acts in the area of civil rights, created during the movement for the protection of civil rights, was the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination in public places in all programs receiving financial support of the federal authorities and in hiring and dismissal by the rationale related to race, religion, gender and ethnic origin. Not all layers of the population disapproved the idea of a reverse discrimination. White population of the state was particularly dissatisfied with the policy of affirmative action as the quotas were intended for black applicants. That even increased the enmity between races. In the history of the United States, there are many examples where the US Supreme Court challenged the constitutionality and legitimacy of certain policy items related to affirmative action. This nuance has become one of the most controversial steps of social and cultural policy of the country.
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