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The Accounts of Justification
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Over the years, people have always had acceptance towards various aspects and practices within the society. This constitutes the basis of their knowledge and personal or collective beliefs of the individuals. Consequently, several fields of study have been advanced by scholars with the wake of educational civilizations. Such emanating field of study is epistemology. This is a field of evaluation that focuses on the knowledge people hold and the various beliefs they practice. It focuses on the necessary conditions for knowledge, the source of that knowledge, its accorded structure and the limits of the same. In focusing on justified belief, the study seeks to establish the accounts of the justification of the belief or knowledge weld. The study allows for determination of knowledge as either a truth or a falsehood. Epistemic justification, therefore, is differentiating between the acts of merely just believing anything, thought or idea as true and actually knowing that it is true. Therefore, having knowledge is the account of justification, with reference to the questions raised in the wholesome subject of epistemology.
To have an inference is therefore a key aspect of justification of the beliefs of the people. It emanates from a critical reasoning point of perception that indicates that the thinking is true. In this case, the whole subject of the accounts of justification is inferred from another related base belief. Arguments as to the necessity of epistemic justification are defeated by the course that the sound must and should have a sound systemic thinking and reasoning. Other discussions touch on the different ways people perceive and understand the approach to knowledge. Therefore, this is of the idea that various beliefs are inter-related. The justification by modern theorists claims that they should subscribe to coherence theory as opposed to justification theory without advocating a theory of truth in coherence. Therefore, this leaves the epistemic justification approach to knowledge and belief the only effective way of understanding epistemology.
The accounts of epistemic justification are those of internalism and externalism. The beliefs in both accounts are justified with reference to the evidence available and good reasoning and former experiences or the basis of the origin of the beliefs. Internalism is the initial instance of justification that is discussed. This accunt of justification has its base foundation of knowledge and belief from within the person himself. An individual has a form of access to the knowledge or justified belief. A justification is established as internal by the fact that the approach to the truth or knowledge makes a person delighted. The person is happy and enjoys access to the J-factors, which are evidently recognizable on reflection. Secondly, justification is considered internal since the J-factors are always states of mind; thus the classification of the internalism justification as either accessibility internalism or mental internalism. Evidentialism is therefore related more to internalism.
On the contrary, externalists who deny the approach of the internalism argue that J-factors do not actually meet either of these conditions. In the account of externalism, the argument is illustrated with the example of children and animals. The children and animals have some sort of knowledge and accordingly, beliefs too. However, the battle is that these beliefs are not justifiable by evidence. Therefore, this leads to the conclusion that the justification they enjoy is external. It is reliant on the origin from reliable process rather than possession of evidence. Secondly, externalist also believes that the what people get from justification is the kind that is brought about by objective probability that is needed for knowledge. These external conditions can hence only be found from the probability of these sources of justification; therefore, the reason that justification has external conditions. This is the reason why externalism is associated with reliabilism.
Epistemic justification has the support of many philosophers and scholars among other related and associated interested parties in epistemology. It has the aspect of explanation of the justification of many beliefs that people hold dear, such as the religious and cultural practices and beliefs. Some of the critics of this internalism concept focus on the area of accessibility. The ability to access this knowledge so as to establish a belief to be true creates a problem regress, of the requirements of justification. Consequently, there is no agreed middle ground for the belief in internalism as every individual or group of people may have a different motivation to base their related belief.
Additionally, several internalists argue that unless a person embraaces a given form of access internalism, they cannot be in position to deliver justice to the connection of the base knowledge and the belief. In this view of events, it is determined that every person has the epistemic duty to accept a belief blamelessly since the belief is dependent on the access to evidential knowledge. The criticisms also state that the internalism justification results in ether or extreme skepticism and are therefore unmotivated. Therefore, as the critics point in their arguments, it is necessary important that as anyone approaches the internalism justification; they should do so with great awareness and care.
The critics of externalism are not necessarily in favor of the internalism, but none the less, they also hold their views that oppose the propositions of the externalism account of justification. In their argument, they propose that the connection between belief information and truth is not substantiated. As the account proposes that a belief is justified by external factor, the argument is therefore on the credibility and authenticity of this source of the knowledge. Therefore, the perceptual knowledge that brings about the belief is in question.
Secondly, the externalism theory approach is more related to reliabilism. This leaves the argument of specification of the degree of the reliability of the knowledge. Moreover, critics argue that reliabilism is based on generality. Reliabilists are accused of describing processes in a very vague and generalized way, hence leading to knowledge base that is questionable. Another critique is that the externalists do not show reference to the way of formation of the belief. They instead, put emphasis on a general condition that somehow connect the belief to the actual truth. This is thus considered as natural occurrence that is believed. The externalists are accused of developing knowledge and belief from processes that evidently are part of nature. They therefore do not evidential and well developed base of knowledge to motivate the perceiving of an individual.
In view of the criticisms of the accounts of justification, it is equally noticeable that not all aspects of either account are completely rejected by the critics. Therefore, this leads to the conclusion that these accounts of epistemic justification are successful in explaining the basis of knowledge and the typical beliefs expressed by many.